Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Income Inequality

Milestone Decisions - Essay Example In this respects, Plessy has additionally recorded the appeal against John H. Ferguson, the chief of the rail organization of United States (Street Law, Inc., 2000). By inspecting the case situation, it has been seen that the Plessy v. Ferguson case was focused on the infringement of law identified with racial segregation. The case was agreeable to John Howard Ferguson, who was the legitimate authority of the case for Louisianan Railroad Companies, as a respondent of the case. In agreement, the choice was declared by the incomparable court of Louisiana expressing that Plessey was legitimized according to the Unites State laws, which was built up for making isolation according to racial premise. For this situation, the enactment was perceived as significant impact behind the dynamic procedure of Supreme Court of Unites States (Street Law, Inc., 2000). Additionally, Supreme Court’s choice in the time of 1875 has confined the administrative government’s capacity towards making any sort of mediation in the state government issue. So as to make any sort of contribution in the racial isolation just as segregation related act, the government needs to take the consent from the Congress in power (Street Law, Inc., 2000). Conflictingly, for the offended party, Plessy’s legal counselor gave proof, which proposed that the infringement of rules under thirteenth and fourteenth revisions had occurred by the railroad organization. As indicated by the offended party, the state railroad organization was blamed for making contrasts between the boarding of rail vehicle for whites just as for shaded race during offering types of assistance. According to the fourteenth amendment rules, Plessy was furnished with the ticket of getting to regular compartments, which in reality makes him subject for equivalent treatment in the rail other than the way that the standard to guarantee separate offices based on consumers’ race was in itself morally

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Better Help For Smokers To Quit Samples †

Question: Examine about the Better Help For Smokers To Quit. Answer: Wellbeing contemplates: Better Help for Smokers to Quit Smoking is an addictive demonstration and it is perhaps the biggest reason for preventable passings in New Zealand. Smoking influences both the smokers and the individuals who encompass them otherwise called the inactive smokers. Smoking, be that as it may, has influenced the quality existence of people prompting the demise of roughly 5000 individuals consistently. Smoking builds the odds of creating interminable ailments, for example, heart ailments and lung diseases, tuberculosis, and furthermore malignant growth. What's more, this, then again, has prompted the expansion of assets that the administration is spending on medicinal services. As indicated by Ministry of wellbeing measurements, 65 % of smokers in New Zealand wish they didn't begin smoking while 60% have attempted to stop smoking however fizzled (Carr, 2004). The legislature of New Zealand is hugely striving to guarantee that smokers either stop or decrease their smoking propensities as a method of improving their wellbe ing and prosperity. The legislature presented the wellbeing activity of Better Help for Smokers to Quit in 2009 as a sign of its pledge to assist with having a free smoking condition. The administration additionally guaranteed that 80% of the people who visit the human services organizations and distinguished as smokers will have free treatment and vital data to help them in their recuperation (Crisp et al, 2012). 95% of the smokers who are hospitalized get satisfactory medicine and treatment and backing from the legislature all through their treatment to assist them with halting the smoking propensity. The achievement of this methodology is stretched out to essential human services whereby people who visit the emergency clinics are offered backing and guidance that would help comprehend the impacts of smoking and the significance of halting smoking. The activity is coordinated to accomplishing its objectives starting at 2011. The exertion of the administration means the endeavors to improve the accessi bility of treatments that help the suspension of smoking. The training is significant in light of the fact that it is empowering and the majority of the smokers have either decreased or even an incredible propensity. Smokers who are dealing with their propensities or who have stopped smoking have an okay of getting incessant sicknesses and even unexpected losses. This proposition is significant on the grounds that there is solid proof that only a basic guidance from wellbeing experts is compelling in urging people to stop smoking. As indicated by the analyst (Tappin, 2005), one in each 40 smokers will make an endeavor to stop in the wake of accepting exhortation from experts. Most smokers consistently wish to however they dont know how to, yet a solitary guidance from these professionals could assist them with making a U-turn and quit their smoking propensities. Foundation This proposition targets smokers and offers them elective or rather cures that can assist them with dealing with their smoking propensity and in the long run quit so as to lessen the untimely death rate. The activity is additionally intended to help decrease the quantity of ceaseless illnesses that are probably going to influence smokers. The specialists, medical caretakers and other wellbeing experts are to make it an everyday practice to ask the individuals whether they smoke (Hammond al, 2004). The legislature in relationship with Ministry of Health has presented the activity as a method of improving medicinal services among the youngsters and the old inside New Zealand and the residents of Bay of Plenty in guaranteeing that they are liberated from ailments related with smoking (Acton, 2012). The wellbeing experts likewise give end treatment to smokers who wish to quit smoking and a follow up on the people to guarantee that they get any help that they may require. The smokers who are as of now enrolled in the framework have various dates that they have to check up in the medical clinics with the goal that the experts can keep an eye on their advancement and give them a path forward. The specialists will likewise guarantee that they connect with the smokers in solid practices that will assist them with coming up short on the opportunity of smoking and acquaint them with different exercises to keep them occupied thus lessening their odds of smoking (Miller Sedivy, 2009). The wellbeing activity is a significant advance by the administration in improving the social insurance of smokers and their families and this consequently is an accomplishment to the entire network and furthermore as a nation. The activity is intended to better the lives of the residents of New Zealand to improve their degree of efficiency as people in the general public. As indicated by (Fagerstrm et al, 2006) the lives of the people who smoke is significant also and helping them to quit smoking is something indispensable. This activity ought to have the option to help spare the lives of in excess of 4000 individuals who bite the dust every year because of smoking-related difficulties (Rollnick et al, 2008). All together for the activity to be accomplished, all encompassing methodology is significant, in light of the fact that influencing change includes the entire network and in this manner, an open mindfulness battle is essential to spreading data in all cases to ensure that all residents know about the activity. Be that as it may, the across the board mediation of the quit smoking activity has expanded the quantity of the individual looking for intercession from 0 to 83 (B. P. U. 2015). The activity wi ll help improve the lives of those influenced and henceforth improve their family ways of life. Proposition Details The proposition is a drawn out procedure that hopes to accomplish its present moment and long haul objectives inside its time allotment. The motivation behind the activity in any case, is to help improve the human services and prosperity of the residents of NZ and Bay of Plenty by guaranteeing that those distinguished as smokers are urged to stop smoking and treated or prompted as needs be. The information underneath thinks about Bay of Plenty (BOP) and New Zealand (NZ) notoriety paces of smoking in various age bunches according to the evaluation (2013). AGE BOP NZ 15-19 13.4% 10.4% 20-24 28.5% 21.4% 25-29 27.3% 19.3% 30-34 23.9% 19.3% 35-39 21.4% 17.8% 40-44 21.2% 18.1% 45-49 19.7% 17.0% 50-54 19.2% 17.0% 55-59 15.6% 14.5% 60-64 11.8% 11.7% 65-69 9.5% 9.8% 70-74 6.3% 7.0% 75-79 4.6% 4.9% 80-84 2.8% 3.5% 85+ 1.9% 2.2% This information plainly shows the pace of smoking in BOP contrasted with NZ, as per the above information, the pace of smoking in the Bay of Plenty is generally high contrasted with that of NZ. Tobacco Control Action Plan 2015-2018, is a broad activity for the Better Help for Smokers to Quit. This Action Plan is coordinated explicitly to the Maori and the Pacific who structures up the BOP due to their high pace of smoking which is a danger to their prosperity and wellbeing. It is distinguished that the high paces of smoking among the BOP has put them in danger of incessant infections, for instance, malignant growth among others. Smoking in BOP is spread the whole route since the beginning of 15 right to 85 years in addition to. Smoking-related sicknesses cost a ton to the administration (Lancaster, 2000). Better Help for Smoker to Quite is an activity that is set up to help lessen the costs that the administration spends on treating these infirmities. The activity incorporates giving the social insurance staff polls to help in distinguishing the smokers and figuring out how to assist them with lessening their smoking propensities and even quit. This framework helps in making a favorable domain for people and the clinical staff. The activity depends on inspiration and giving an answer for the objective gathering during their visit to the wellbeing cares. This is a free help offered to all the patients who visit the medicinal services and distinguish themselves as smokers. The human services and their whole staff are the significant drivers of the crusade to advance a free smoking condition in the NZ yet particularly inside the BOP (Tong et al, 2006). The activity has so far accomplished its essential objective, and its at present on the auxiliary objective which is on a week after week checking by the Ministry. The medical clinic has activated assets for the staff, maternity specialists, and patients to guarantee that the two of them accomplish the objectives of building up a free smoking society. As indicated by the information gave by the Ministry of Health, the quantity of patients getting counsel and treatment has expanded and this will build the quantity of people who quit the training. The activity will help guarantee that the training upon the ladies smokers is halted totally. End Smoking has prompted a high pace of mortality among the individuals of New Zealand and particularly those from BOP. The activity has emphatically helped a few people either to oversee or even quit smoking totally. In any case, as indicated by the Ministry of wellbeing, the activity is continuous and there are distinctive key plans and activities that are remembered for the activity to ensure that the activity accomplishes its course in decreasing the paces of smokers and empowering a domain that is a free smoking zone. This has likewise helped in diminishing the dangers of contracting constant ailments among the smokers which could prompt mortality among the youthful and the old. The legislature has been and still is idealistic about diminishing the paces of smoking by setting up all measures for instance sufficient assets to urge the activity to accomplish its course. References Acton, Q. A. (2012). Ceaseless periodontitis: New bits of knowledge for the human services professional.Atlanta: Scholarly Editions(2015). New Zealand venture and business control: Strategic and functional data. Spot of distribution not distinguished: Intl Business Pubns Usa. Fresh, J., Taylor, C., Douglas, C., Rebeiro, G. (2012). Potter Perry's Fundamentals of Nursing - AUS Version. London: Elsevier Health Sciences APAC. Carr, A. (2004). The simple w

Thursday, August 20, 2020

Military Story The Marines Father

Military Story The Marines Father A nurse took the tired, anxious serviceman to the bedside. Your son is here, she said to the old man. She had to repeat the words several times before the patients eyes opened.Heavily sedated because of the pain of his heart attack, he dimly saw the young uniformed Marine standing outside the oxygen tent. He reached out his hand. The Marine wrapped his toughened fingers around the old mans limp ones, squeezing a message of love and encouragement.The nurse brought a chair so that the Marine could sit beside the bed. All through the night the young Marine sat there in the poorly lighted ward, holding the old mans hand and offering him words of love and strength. Occasionally, the nurse suggested that the Marine move away and rest awhile. He refused. Whenever the nurse came into the ward, the Marine was oblivious of her and of the night noises of the hospital the clanking of the oxygen tank, the laughter of the night staff members exchanging greetings, the cries and moans of the other patients.Now and then she heard him say a few gentle words. The dying man said nothing, only held tightly to his son all through the night.Along towards dawn, the old man died. The Marine released the now lifeless hand he had been holding and went to tell the nurse. While she did what she had to do, he waited.Finally, she returned. She started to offer words of sympathy, but the Marine interrupted her.Who was that man? he asked.The nurse was startled, He was your father, she answered.No, he wasnt, the Marine replied. I never saw him before in my life.Then why didnt you say something when I took you to him?I knew right away there had been a mistake, but I also knew he needed his son, and his son just wasnt here. When I realized that he was too sick to tell whether or not I was his son, knowing how much he needed me, I stayed.Author Unknown

Sunday, May 24, 2020

Does God Exist Essay - 1145 Words

Proof Of The Exsistence of God Either God exists or He doesnt. There is no middle ground. Any attempt to remain neutral in relation to Gods existence is automatically synonymous with unbelief. The question for Gods existence is really important. Does God exist? Theology, cosmological, teleological and ontological arguments are all have ways to prove the existence of God. With all of these great arguments how can one deny that there is a God. There is a God and with these reasons I will prove that. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;There are two types of theology discussed in chapter nine of Kessler â€Å"Voices of Wisdom,† revealed and natural theology. Revealed theology comes from such sources as the Bible and according to St. Thomas Aquinas†¦show more content†¦Cosmological arguments were started at the time the questions of the universe were first asked. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The existence of motion to the existence of a first mover as the cause of movement, was argued by Aristotle. This first mover he called God. The reason for this was that nothing caused God to move yet God was responsible for the motion of all other things. Thisargument is based on presumptions in other cosmological arguments. The first was that something could not cause itself, second something cannot come from nothing, last there could not possibly be an infinite amount of cause and effects. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;St. Thomas’ view was of God is an infinite, all-good, all-knowing, all powerful, perfect being who created the universe and now has sole command over it. This view is known as theism. St. Thomas states that a first cause must be in order to have cause and effect now. For if we take away the first cause there would be no effect following there for the universe would have never been created which is impossible because we can prove the universe does exist. He also argues that there are things in the universe that have the possibility of existing and not existing, we have seen things that have existed and than destroyed, thus proving that there is the ability of being and not being. There was a time whenShow MoreRelatedDoes God Exist?1074 Words   |  5 PagesDoes God Exist ? 1. What role do arguments play in answering this question? I think arguments have played an important role in analyzing and understanding the depth of this question, for mankind. Although the question itself seems factual (either it does or it doesn t), yet no arguments have been able to answer this question conclusively, despite many debates going on for centuries. One possible reason for that inconclusiveness may lie in our intuition and the way, humans define God and existenceRead MoreDoes God Exist1417 Words   |  6 PagesDoes God exist? Does God exist? This seemingly simple question is in fact loaded with a myriad of twists and turns that scientists and theologians have debated for years without reaching an accepted conclusion. Part of the problem lies in the many definitions of God. Traditionally it is accepted that God is a supreme being, infallible, perfect, and existing outside of the material world of humanity. It is this definition that is generally used when debating Gods existence. There have been severalRead MoreDoes God Exist?1366 Words   |  5 Pagesbetween Jesus and his disciples before Jesus was betrayed by Judas Iscariot. The main philosophical question that arose to me when I saw this painting was if God exists. Depicted in the painting there is a higher being or God watching over Jesus and his disciples. There are many arguments and ideas for the existence of a higher being or God, some of the main ones are; Pascal’s Wager, the Ontological argument, the Cosmological argument, the Teleologic al argument, the Moral argument, and the argumentRead MoreDoes God Exist1483 Words   |  6 PagesDoes God Exist The question of God’s existence has lingered in the mind of man since the dawn of religion. The simple fact that billions of people consider themselves to have some allegiance to a deity means that this question deserves to be seriously considered. In this paper I will argue for the sake that God does exist and the reasons why. I will include many of the arguments found in our philosophy book and those covered in class as well as other subjects such as human suffering and the reasonsRead MoreDoes God Exist?668 Words   |  3 Pagesculture has its God. Christianity and Islam have their own god; the Romans and Greeks had their Pantheon. A lot of people believe in god have thought that there is more to life the material world around us. It seems arises naturally the world over by believing in god. Does God exist? I believe in God is exists by the philosophical argument: ontological argument, the first cause argument, the argument form design, and the moral argument. Arguments relate to the existence of God are in differentRead MoreDoes God Exist?563 Words   |  2 PagesDoes God exist? There is no evidence that any god exist, so I assume that there isn’t one. I do not believe in a heaven or a hell! Although, I wonder where did we come from? Where will we end up after death? Will we rot underneath the soil? There are over twenty different religions with answers; some similar, some different but overall, majority of them are bias. Bias, because none of them are proven. In today’s society, we humans have adapted through evolutions by using our surroundings such likeRead MoreDoes God Exist? The Existence Of God?1876 Words   |  8 PagesDoes God Exist? The existence of God is a question that has troubled and plagued mankind since it began to consider logic. Is there a God? How can we be sure that God exists? Can you prove to me that He is real? Does His existence, or lack thereof, make a significant difference? These loaded questions strike at the heart of human existence. But the real question is, can we answer any of them? These questions are answered in the arguments of St. Thomas Aquinas, Blaise Pascal and St. Anselm ofRead MoreDoes God Exist? Essay925 Words   |  4 PagesDoes God exist? The question of Gods existence is a perplexing one, the only evidence we have of God is what we are told from those who worship him, and unknowns can be debated logically if a higher being is in control. It has been written that in the beginning there was man and there was woman, and God put the two together to create a new race of beings. We are to assume then that God gave these beings a soul to distinguish them from other beings, for example, plants. The soul is often arguedRead MoreDoes God Really Exists? Essay1306 Words   |  6 PagesDoes God Really Exists The idea of God has been one of the most debatable issues since the dawn of humanity and with it guided as well as deluded most lives in the pursuit for the truth. The impacts springing from the notion of God has from time memorial changed history, inspired more poetry and music including philosophy more than anything else, imagined or real. Peter Kreft once concluded that â€Å"The idea of God is either a fact, like sand, or a fantasy like Santa† (Lawhead, p. 334). Over the causeRead MoreDoes God Exist? Essay1611 Words   |  7 Pagesmany rational arguments for and against the existence of God. It is based on the views of some of the great philosophers and scientists of our world. I will show that there is no sufficient proof or comprehensive arguments for the existence of God. Some people search for eternal peace through the beliefs in God; but this is an impossible belief because of the chances, the plausibility, and because of science. ONTOLOGICAL ARGUMENTS God generally refers to one supreme, holy, personal being,. The

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

An Analysis Of Dr. Samuel Mudd - 1773 Words

Mud is a slimy sticky mixture of solid material with a liquid, the most common is soft wet earth. Mud is also known as an abusive and malicious remark or accusation; frequently in the political game, contestants will sling â€Å"mud† at each other to damage their opponent’s reputation and gain the favor of supporters. These political contestants may go as far to say â€Å"One’s name is mud†, which is used to express a strong dislike for a person implying their reputation is no better than the slimy sticky dirt one walks on. This phrase may have been coined from the story of Dr. Samuel Mudd, the physician that treated John Wilkes Booth’s broken leg after his assassination of President Lincoln, who was convicted of conspiracy and later pardoned after three year served. The events that befell Dr. Mudd are true but his name did not coin the term â€Å"one’s name is mud† even though it may be the perfect parable correlating to the expressi on. The truth behind the phase is that it originates from the Oxford English Dictionary which documented its meaning four decades before the assassination along with a book from Britain, A Dictionary of Turf by John Bee, using the connotation of this expression long before the assassination. This type of misconception is the pitfall of history. A historian must be ever mindful of where they gather the information that will form their opinions of past events. The story of Dr. Mudd is like another tale still shrouded in the mists of time. The story is one ofShow MoreRelatedThe Assassination Of Abe Lincoln2130 Words   |  9 PagesAn Analysis Over the Assassination of Abe Lincoln â€Å"Four score and seven years ago...† Abraham Lincoln was our 16th president and had his life taken after the North’s victory over the South; he lives on through these famous words of the Gettysburg Address. Abraham Lincoln was an important leader in the Civil War who helped free the slaves; his legacy lives on today. Although he was assassinated his words and actions are imprinted in our memory still today. This assassination was a major event inRead MoreHistorical Background And Point Of View1973 Words   |  8 Pagesworld are looking for wisdom from him. People are looking for a leader who will fight so, as Lincoln stated in his Gettysburg Address, â€Å"that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.† Rhetorical Style Analysis Title In modern society, people are always looking for excitement in entertainment. The newest James Bond movie will always outdo a documentary in the box office, and characters such as John Wilkes Booth and Abraham Lincoln fall to the side as aRead MoreAnalysis Of Bill O Reilly s Killing Lincoln Essay2636 Words   |  11 PagesBill O’Reilly’s and Martin Dugard’s book Killing Lincoln delves into the events leading up to the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln and the repercussions upon the people involved, as well as a detailed analysis of the ongoing war efforts and the affects one has upon the other. While unraveling the conspiracy and its members, the reader is given compelling evidence and speculative reasoning that leads the reader to believe that the plot to assassinate Lincoln involves additional people, and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Challenges of Scholarly Writing Free Essays

Writing is a means of expressing oneself through words and even a method of sharing information about different fields of study. Many have enjoyed and appreciated various forms literature that have transformed readers to another place or make them feel that they are someone else. The benefits of writing are endless. We will write a custom essay sample on Challenges of Scholarly Writing or any similar topic only for you Order Now More so, it has become an integral part of a person’s life and an inevitable component of the society. For without it, the world today would be bland and monotonous. Since we were toddlers we were trained to read and write so that in our adult years, we will be equipped with a tool that can advance our status in the society which can either be for personal or professional purposes. For me, writing has been an arduous but rewarding part of my life. At first, I was a little apprehensive about writing because it requires the writer to know a lot about sentence constructions, proper usage of punctuations and others. It seemed that writing was a tedious task that demanded time and effort in order to produce high-quality outputs. But after numerous writing exercises and trials, I was able to get used to with the rules and guidelines involved in writing. Because of this, I was able to be exposed to various forms of writing such as creative, technical and scholarly writing. Among the three, creative writing is the easiest and most enjoyable because it gives freedom to the writer to write about anything under the sun. It is like typing on the keyboard or scribbling on a piece paper everything that pops in your head. Meanwhile, technical writing demands technical knowledge about a certain subject which makes it harder than creative and scholarly writing. However, scholarly writing is a different story because it is arduous to write but the end results are beneficial and helpful particularly to the academe. During my days as a student, I was bombarded with a lot of scholarly papers which helped us to learn more about the courses that we took in college. There were days that ideas just came flowing in your mind that helped me finished my research or writing papers in a short amount of time. But there are also moments when you can not seem to extract any good thoughts from your brain even if you spend hours and hours researching, reading and brainstorming. This type of incident is famously known as writer’s block wherein the writer experiences a short-term inability to start or continue the writing process which is frequently caused by the lack of drive and creativity. Also, another writing obstacle is the generation of ideas or thoughts. The most difficult part of writing is the beginning and the conclusion phase. As a writer, I found it hard to organize and develop properly my views and perceptions about a certain subject matter. Even though there is a lot of information, sometimes it is difficult to synthesize all of them to make coherent and logical paragraphs. Aside from this, writers particularly students also go through many obstacles in scholarly writing such as poor structure of writing composition, incorrect usage of grammar and words, citations and plagiarism. When these factors remained unnoticed, the likelihood of generating a solid writing material would be impossible. The key to producing a well-structured scholarly paper is that the thesis statement must be direct and concise. Also, it should be supported by strong arguments at the body of the paper and followed by a conclusion that summarizes the main points and answers the thesis statement. More so, grammar and language used should be appropriate to the topic to make the paper credible and smooth-flowing. However, the most important factor to consider in writing is using proper citations to avoid plagiarism. In writing, it is inevitable to borrow ideas from other writers or previous studies. In order to avoid committing a professional misconduct, writers should cite all sources that they have used in their scholarly papers as a sign of acknowledgment that the incorporated information were taken from other publications. As an alternative, it would be better if writers tried to create their own ideas instead of copying other people’s work thus their skills in writing and critical thinking would be further developed. There is no shortcut in making excellent scholarly papers. Writers must learn the basics of writing before they can be able to yield productive outputs. Moreover, there is no alternate for sitting down and jotting down your ideas on paper so writers should make the best out of writing and try to be honest and responsible . How to cite Challenges of Scholarly Writing, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Australian Taxation Duties Segeregated Businesses

Question: Describe about the Australian Taxation Duties for Segeregated Businesses. Answer: Introduction The given case study has been segregated into two parts. It is based on an individual named Fred residing in England who visits Australia for setting up his branch. It was observed that in his initial stages of his stay Fred resided in Australia for more than 11 months. It is also given that Fred stayed with his family for some period during his stay in Australia. It is further given that after a period of 11 months Fred decided to return to his native place due to ill health. The study shows on the rationale for his assessment of the tax on the grounds of Australian residential tax norms. The latter part of the report shows the laws and outcomes based on ordinary income. Case Study 1- Residence and Source As per the Australian taxation authority, Fred will be taxed as he has been residing in Australia for more than eleven years before he was observed to return from England. The earnings of him during the stay in France at the time of his employment at Australia will be also taken into consideration during the tax assessment. The various types of the complexities need to be taken into consideration is based on the individual personal circumstances. Bur it should be also noted that one cannot put much stress on the importance of the significance of the lucidity of the subject of the residency and the immigrants who are attaining the appropriate advice for a particular business venture and the undertaking of a contract. It has been also observed that Fred is primarily a resident of Australia as the per the concerns of the tax assessment. It has to be noted that Fred has spent exceeding a period of 183 days. Any migrant who has spent more than 183 days sporadically or consistently is liable to be charged as per the taxation norms. In general term Fred is also liable to hold a land on lease for the past 12 months and used to stay with his wife before he returned to England due to ill health. As per the guidelines given by the Australian taxation agency, an individual can be only exempted from tax if he/she satisfied due to the natural place of residence which is outside his native pace of origin and moreover he does not have any intentions for acquiring the residence. During the domicile test the different types of the tax ruling as per the Income Tax 2650 states that the a country in which a person or an individual is born, unless he/she migrates to some other region and then decided to adopt, the citizenship of his own choice. As per the given case Fred, is originally a British resident with intentions to set up the business in Australia. Although, it has be noted that the total tenure of his stay is sufficient and during his stay he also took a house on lease for a period of 12 months and resided at Australia for a duration of 11 months before he returned to England due to his liverish health. It has to be further noted Freds residential, status needs to be decided as per his stay at Australia and the residency test is used to provide the information of then fact of the liability is dependent on the circumstances of the stay. It has to be also understood that in case an individual returns to his place of origin then in that case the frequency, periods and the regularity of the trips needs to be taken into consideration for making the tax assessment. In case the only reason for the absence of an individual from Australia is due to business, then this facts is not enough for the purpose for the assessment for claiming of the inhabitance of an individual. Due to this reason Freds ties with his business and families based in Australia is enough to be considered for the purpose of taxation under the Income Tax Act. Case study 2 Ordinary Income I. Californian Copper Syndicate Ltd v Harris (Surveyor of Taxes) (1904) 5 TC 159 The case mentioned above states about then realization of the problems pertaining to the capital assets even if the earning from the sale of property can be exploited for mineral in form of the ordinary capital or income (Arthur 2016). Law: As stated in the rulings in assessing in determining the profits that are being extracted for the different types of the isolated income sources and these are assessable under 25(1) of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936 (Davison, Monotti and Wiseman 2016). The two types of the isolated transaction are shown below as follows: The entries, which are entered into the books of non-business taxpayers The entries which are outside the purview of the ordinary course of the business of a taxpayer including the ones carrying out eh commercial activities Outcome: The outcome of this clearly states that the taxpayer was assessable on the grounds of the profits, which were being sources from the sale of the land and then form of the profits, which are identified as income in nature. It has to be further understood that the taxpayer were actually seeking to earn profits from the sale of land. It needs to be understood that the taxpayer did not have the sufficient funds to mine the land (Bryan, Degeling, Donald and Vann 2016). As stated by the Lord of justice the owner of the ordinary investment decides to realize the investment made by the taxpayer when it attains a higher price and not just the profit. Hence as per Sense of Schedule D of the Income Tax Act of 1842 the income tax is assessable (Cohen-Kurzrock 2015). Scottish Australian Mining Co Ltd v FC of T (1950) 81 CLR 188 The given case takes into consideration the business income and knowledge of subdivision for the sale of land, which may be further utilized for realizing the capital (Hart, Clark and Fazzani 2013). Law: Tax gains from capital: The various types of the capital gains and the loss can be made if the capital gains tax event may take place as per specified in the section 108-5(1) of the income tax assessment act 1997. This clearly states that gains from capital is termed as property or a legal equitable right is not considers as a property (Morse 2013). Outcomes: The decision taken by the management can be long considered for the passing of the proposition, which is related to the meager realization of the enterprise. As per the common law report the hearing took a long time of two days pass the hearing of the judgments which was made after six days of time. The outcomes clearly stated that then essential commercial exercise was being treated as a mere realization of the capital assets (Vermeulen 2015). FC of T v Whit fords Beach Pty Ltd (1982) 150 CLR The study is based on the fact whether a taxpayer was included in taxation on the basis of the profits for the sale of the subdivision of the land and this is considered under the section 25(1) or 26(a) or in case the tax payer was seen to be releasing the capital assets (Fuest et al. 2013). Law: As per the different type of the rulings of the law for the assessment of the proceeds generated as a result of Isolated transactions. These are treated as income or assessable under subsection 25 (1) of the Income Tax Act Assessment Act 1936 (Fleischer 2015). Outcomes: The verdicts stated by Wilson JJ, Mason, Gibbs CJ and Murohy the taxpayers were observed to be assessable for generating the sale of land under the sections under section 25 (1). The high court is observed that the profit surpassed the merely than the realizing the capital asset and the different type of the activities which are constituted for the purpose for the carrying out of the business activities (Campbell 2013). Although it was stated by Mason J and Gibbs to specify the second limb which operated under section 25(1), it does not consider the profits which are being yielded from the gross income. The outcome of this is related to the profit generation, which is computed in the basis of the subtraction from proceeds of the different type of the value of sale data (Ricketson Richardson and Davison 2012). Statham Anor v FC of T 89 ATC 4070 The aforementioned study is related to the questioning of the proceeds which are being received for the sale of the subdivided lots to constitute the assessable income which is given under then sections 25 (1) or 26 (a) (Burke 2016). Law: Taxable/Assessable Income: The various type of the income, which is assessable, from the sale of the subdivided land, which was originally, acquired leading to any sort of realization of the assets. Outcomes: The Federal court has been observed to rule out the net proceeds which are being generated from the sale of the subdivided land which did not take into account assessable income under section 25 (1) or 26 (a). As per Hartigan JJ and Woodward, Lockhart which is related to the understanding of the realization of an asset on the amount of profit which does not necessarily include the amount of the taxable profit. The mere amount of te realization does not convert the business undertakings however the scale of the realization must be considered for the nature of the undertakings (Schwieger and Chen 2013). Casimaty v FC of T 97 ATC 5135 The aforementioned case is related to determining of profit from the subdivision and sale of parts of property which is assessable either under section 25 (1) or 25A (Samuel 2013). Law: The law is related to questioning of profits, which are generated from the carrying of the business or as a result of the realization of assets bearing capital. Outcomes: The court passed its verdict by concluding the action view which was acquired by the taxpayer with the objective primary production that no profit from sales is assessable in accordance with the first limb of Section 25A (1). Moana Sand Pty Ltd v FC of T 88 ATC 4897 The case is related to questioning whether section section 25 (1) or 26 (a) is applicable to the tax payers assessable income and the amount receivable by the tax payer by deducting the relevant cost for deriving the profit from the selling off the land. Law: The law determines whether the profits generated from the isolated income are assessable under section 25(1) of the income tax Assessment Act 1936. Outcomes: As per the court ruling the amount received by the taxpayer was obtained as a form of then isolated payments. Moreover the profit was taken into consideration in terms of the ordinary concept of the compliance as per the decision passed by the in FC of T v The Emporium LTD 87 ATC 4363 and hence it is constituted as assessable income under section 25(1). As per the final verdict the court decided that then profit was assessable under second limbs of section 26 (a) as it was realized on the execution of the profit undertaking scheme. Crow v FC of T 88 ATC 4620 The case is based on the subsection 25 (1) or section 26 (a) of the Income Tax Assessment Act 1936. This is applicable to the selling of the land near Hobart. Law: Taxable Income: The assemble income is based on the selling of the subdivided land initially acquired for farming on which proceed are derived from carrying out of the business activities (Bently and Sherman 2014). Outcomes: The outcome of the decision stated taxpayer had taken money heavily for purchasing of five large area of land and conducted the business activities in them. At a later stage the tax was assessable on the land which was taxable in nature. McCurry Anor v FC of T 98 ATC 4487 The case is related to the profit generation form the sale of the land assessable under section 25(1). Law: As per the law the taxpayers are assessed as per the section 25 (1) of the Income Tax Assessable Act 1936 on the profit from the sale of land. It states the basis of deriving profit from the scheme. Outcomes: The study shows that the brothers used the funds for taking credit for the bank for purchasing land where the house stood. The verdict given by hen court stated in the property is acquired during the course of the business with a profit-earning motive then it will not be regarded as an investment. It further stated that the profit generated is considered as an income under sec 25 (1). The rulings of the court further stated that the taxpayers entered into commercial dealings and they were not carrying any business activities. The profit assessable has to be derived for the transactions, which can be stated as commercial, dealings. Conclusion It can be concluded by stated that will be taxed as per the taxation rule on the Australia as the period his stay exceeded by 11 months. This due to the reason to Fred decided to stay in Australia for a period more than 183 days. It has been also observed Fred decided to hold a land on lease for a period exceeding 12 moths. As per the applied rulings discussed, the residential status of Fred has been determined based on residency test and the various considerations for tax liability shows the tax liability is based on the circumstances of stay. The latter part the report highlight s then different types of the case based on the ordinary income. Then discussion shows the several types of law, outcomes with the relevant examples from the court cases. Reference List Arthur, G., 2016. Tax files: Taxation duties of executors. Bulletin (Law Society of South Australia), 38(2), p.28. Bently, L. and Sherman, B., 2014. Intellectual property law. Oxford University Press, USA. Bryan, M., Degeling, S., Donald, S. and Vann, V., 2016. A Sourcebook on Equity and Trusts in Australia. Cambridge University Press. Burke, K.C., 2016. Taxing Risky and Non-Risky Compensation: Section 707 (a)(2)(A). Journal of Taxation of Investments, 33(4). Campbell, D., 2013. International joint ventures. Juris Publishing, Inc.. Cohen-Kurzrock, B.A., 2015. What's It Worth to You-A Brief Evaluation of the 2016 Greenbook Consistency in Valuations for Transfer and Income Tax Proposal. HLRe: Off Rec., 6, p.99. Davison, M., Monotti, A. and Wiseman, L., 2016. Australian intellectual property law. Cambridge University Press. Fleischer, V., 2015. Two and Twenty Revisited: Taxing Carried Interest as Ordinary Income Through Executive Action Instead of Legislation. Available at SSRN 2661623. Fuest, C., Spengel, C., Finke, K., Heckemeyer, J. and Nusser, H., 2013. Profit shifting and'aggressive'tax planning by multinational firms: Issues and options for reform. ZEW-Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper, (13-044). Hart, T., Clark, S. and Fazzani, L., 2013. Intellectual property law. Palgrave Macmillan. Horngren, C.T., Sundem, G.L., Schatzberg, J.O. and Burgstahler, D., 2013. Introduction to management accounting. Pearson Higher Ed. Morse, S.C., 2013. Startup Ltd.: Tax Planning and Initial Incorporation Location. Fla. Tax Rev., 14, p.319. Ricketson, S., Richardson, M. and Davison, M., 2012. Intellectual property: cases, materials and commentary. LexisNexis Butterworths. Samuel, G., 2013. Law of Obligations Legal Remedies. Routledge. Schwieger, D. and Chen, S., 2013. Tax Consequences of Selling, Purchasing and Using State Income Tax Credits, The. J. Tax'n Fin. Products, 11, p.9. Vermeulen, A., 2015. The tax treatment of rehabilitation liabilities assumed by the purchaser as part of the consideration given on the sale of mining property in terms of Section 37 of the Income Tax Act 58 of 1962.